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First Aid is the temporary and prompt care given to a person until professional help arrives. Before going to the aid of a casualty, check that the area is safe for you and them, there could be danger from electricity, chemicals, fast-moving traffic etc. If a medical emergency occurs and the person is still conscious, ask them what is wrong and where it hurts. If the person is not moving ascertain whether they are conscious by tapping them and asking if they are OK.

If the person is unconscious: Check the ABC's
- Airways
- Breathing
- Circulation

Immediately call 999 for emergency medical services
Do not give an unconscious person anything through the mouth. Do not move the injured person unless the situation is life threatening. You may cause further internal damage by moving them, especially in the case of neck and spinal injuries.

Due to the risks of infectious diseases, precautions are always advised when dealing with any victim. Try and use latex gloves and a mask if possible. Always wash hands and other exposed areas of skin thoroughly after giving First Aid.

For this guide an infant is less than a year old, a child is 1-8 years old, and an adult is over 8 years old.

Make sure the unconscious person’s airway is open. There are two ways of opening a person's airway. The first is the modified jaw-thrust and the second is the head-tilt/chin lift.

Modified jaw-thrust procedure

Kneel behind the person so you are facing the top of the person's head.

Hold the jawbone on both sides at the point where it angles up towards the ears.

Move the jaw forward and then upwards.

Pull the lower lip back with your thumb if the lips are closed.

Head-tilt/chin lift procedure

Kneel beside the person's shoulders.

Place the palm of one hand on the person's forehead.

Place two fingers of your other hand under the bony part of the chin.

To open the airway, lift the chin in and then upwards whilst gently tilting the head backwards.

After completing the head-tilt/chin lift or the jaw-thrust procedures, place your head down, close to the person’s mouth and listen and feel for breathing whilst ensuring an open airway. See whether the person's chest is rising/falling, listen carefully for breathing and feel for any air escaping from the person's mouth.

This process should only take a few seconds. If the person is not breathing, keep the airway open and pinch the nose shut, make a tight seal over the person's mouth with yours and give two slow breaths (over two seconds). In the case of an infant or small child, cover the nose and mouth with your own mouth and give two small breaths (between 1 - 1.5 seconds)

Check that the persons blood is circulating by looking for signs of improved colouring and eye movement. You can also check the persons pulse by placing your index and middle fingers on the inside of the persons wrist.